Chemistry International
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2000, Vol. 22

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Environmental Concerns


Environmental Concerns
Croatia
Denmark
Greece
India
Turkey

Croatia

Air quality in settlements has been improving in the last 10 years. The reasons for this improvement could be found in the introduction of natural gas, introduction of heating facilities operated from heating plants, substitution of coal with other fuel types and gradual reconstruction of the Croatian economy towards environmentally cleaner technologies. In 1995 the air protection law came into force, and the problem of air pollution has been put under more systematic control.
Chem. Int. 20(5), 1998

Denmark
Denmark is situated in Northern Europe in a generally cool, windy, and moist coastal climate. Air pollution levels are usually moderate compared with Southern and Eastern Europe, which have higher emission densities and more intense photochemical activity. However, the environmental impact of air pollution still gives rise to concern, principally because of health effects owing to human exposure to fine and ultrafine particles. Other issues include nitrogen deposition that contributes to eutrophication of coastal waters, damage to sensitive terrestrial ecosystems owing to atmospheric deposition of nutrients and acidifying compounds, and ozone stress.
Chem. Int. 22(5), 2000

Greece

Greece, owing to its geomorphology and its fragmented structure, has an extremely wide range of environments with a vast variety of natural conditions, including high mountainous areas as well as subtropical regions. Its mountains, many of which exceed 2 000 m in height, provide all kinds of conditions with a large variety of woods, fields, and rocks; its lowlands include wide river deltas and lagoons. Greece has also many lakes and streams. Some large rivers in northern Greece (the Axios, Strimon, Nestos, and Evros) enter from the Balkan Peninsula, crossing two or more countries.
Chem. Int. 22(1), 2000

India

The rapid pace of industrialization and the greater emphasis on agricultural growth for overall development have brought in a host of environmental problems in recent years in India. Financial and technological constraints have led to inefficient conversion processes, thereby leading to generation of larger quantities of waste and resulting pollution. The concentration of industries in certain pockets and the skewed distribution of rainfall have further compounded the scenario. Thus, India encounters water quality problems both on account of water pollution and overexploitation of groundwater.
Chem. Int. 21(2), 1999

Turkey

As is the case with all environmental problems, the two primary causes of air pollution in Turkey are urbanization -which has been rapid since the 1950s- and industrialization. Before industrialization more than 80% of the population lived in rural areas; now more than 60% live in the cities and industrial complexes. Among the developments contributing to air pollution in the cities are incorrect urbanization for the topographical and meteorological conditions, incorrect division of urban land into lots, low quality fuel and improper combustion techniques, a shortage of green areas, an increase in the number of motor vehicles and inadequate disposal of wastes.
Chem. Int. 19(6), 1997

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