PROPERTIES AND UNITS IN THE CLINICAL LABORATORY SCIENCES

IX. PROPERTIES AND UNITS IN TRACE ELEMENTS

(IUPAC Technical report 1997 - IFCC Recommendation 1997)

Prepared for publication by

R. CORNELIS1, X. FUENTES-ARDERIU2, I. BRUUNSHUUS3, D. TEMPLETON4
 

  1. Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Universiteit Gent, Gent, Belgium
  2. Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Ciutat SanitÓria i UniversitÓria de Bellvitge, L'hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
  3. Department of Clinical Pharmacology Q 7642, Copenhagen University Hospital (Rigshospitalet), Copenhagen, Denmark
  4. Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Banting Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada

The combined Memberships of the Commission and the Committee during the preparation of this report was as follows:
Memberships of the IUIPAC/C-TOX:
R. Cornelis, Chairperson (Belgium);B. Heinzow (Germany), J.H. Duffus (United Kingdom), M. Jakubowski (Poland), J. Molin Christensen (Denmark), D.M. Templeton (Canada)

The combined Memberships of IUPAC/C-NPU and the IFCC/C-NPU during the preparation of this report (1994-1996) was as follows:
Chairman: 1989-1995 H Olesen(Denmark), 1996- D. Kenny (Ireland), Members: X Fuentes-Arderiu (Spain; 1991-1997); JG Hill (Canada; 1987-1997); D. Kenny (Ireland; 1994-1997); H. Olesen (Denmark; 1985-1995); PL Storring (United Kingdom; 1989-1995); P. Soares de Araujo (Brazil; 1994-1997); Clem McDonald (USA; 1996-1997).

Please forward comments to
R. Cornelis, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Instituut Nucleaire Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
Fax:+32 9 264 66 99; E-mail: rita.cornelis@rug.ac.be

Synopsis
This document is the first Technical report-recommendation on the presentation of trace elements and their values in clinical laboratory sciences from International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. It forms part of the ongoing effort to standardise requests and reporting of laboratory data for transmission across cultural and linguistic domains, without attempting to standardise the routine language used by clinicians and laboratory practitioners.
Other documents deal with syntax, kinds-of-property, and properties and units used in other areas of clinical laboratory sciences.


The document is accessible on Internet from C-NPU Home page address:

http://www.ifcc-iupac.suite.dk

Preface
This document is the result of cooperation between the Commission on Toxicology of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the Committee/Commission on Nomenclature, Properties and Units of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) and IUPAC.

The document is the ninth part (IX) of a series on properties examined in the clinical laboratory sciences, initiated in 1987.
The series will comprise:
 

Syntax and semantic rules
II  Kinds-of-property
III  Elements (of properties) and their code values
IV  Properties and their code values
Properties and units in Thrombosis and Haemostasis
VI  Properties and units in IOC prohibited drugs
VII  Properties and units in Inborn Errors of Metabolism
VIII  Properties and units in Clinical Microbiology
IX Properties and units in Trace Elements  (this document)
Properties and units in General Clinical Chemistry
XI  Coding systems - structure and guidelines
XII  Properties and units in Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
XIII  Properties and units in Reproduction and Fertility
XIV Properties and units in Tumor Markers
XVI  Properties and units in Clinical Allergology

Foreword and scope
Basic research in biology and medicine and innovations in laboratory methodology have greatly increased the range of properties available to medical practitioners to help them in decisions on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease.
The plethora is now such that the individual physician has insight in or understanding of only a limited number of properties offered to him from the various clinical laboratory specialities.
In the laboratory, local terms (jargon) may be well understood among colleagues, but they are not appropriate for communication with the outside world. Likewise, a laboratory and its local community of users, such as hospital or community physicians, may use a "local dialect" of the language of clinical laboratory sciences which is well understood by all concerned, but when the communication possibilities are wider, even transnational, risks of serious misunderstanding arise.
In addition, the terminology used by one laboratory speciality may vary even within the speciality, and may be incomprehensible to another speciality. This is a minor inconvenience to the laboratory specialities, each one essentially operating within its own area of activity. However, for the user this is highly unsatisfactory and also may hinder treatment of the patient.
It is therefore essential to promote clear, unambiguous, meaningful and fully informative communication. Also, coherence of statements made within and between medical specialities, and uniformity in structure of presentation are to be strived for. This will facilitate transfer of information across cultural, alphabetic and language areas.
The purpose of this document is to apply the IUPAC- IFCC recommended syntax structures for request and report, providing formats and terms of properties examined in the domain of Trace Elements, in order to facilitate unequivocal written or electronic communication between health care professionals.
The list of properties shown in this document is not exhaustive; it is a collection of realistic examples.

Standardised request and report of clinical laboratory results

The parts of a request and a report are presented in table 1.
 

Table 1. Standard systematic report
1. Identification and time
1.1 object or patient identification
1.2 date and time of sampling
2. Property
2.1 system*
2.2 component#
2.3 kind-of-propertyž
3. Result
3.1 equality, inequality or other operator
3.2 value
3.3 unit
4. Notes
* that part of the object or patient to which the property pertains
# definable part of the system
ž general class of the property

For definition of terms, see Ref.1

Essential for a request are part 1 and 2 (Table 1), covering information on patient identification, time or time interval for sampling, and information on the property requested.
The laboratory report comprises the three subdivisions 1, 2 and 3.
To each element in part 2 may be added a specification as a parenthetic suffix for clarification and to avoid ambiguity.
Remarks (part 4) relating to diagnosis, medication, haemolysis or hardware breakdown are not included, except when needed for the interpretation of results.
Thus, the elements of a property comprise:

System(specification)—Component(specification); kind-of-property(specification)

This is as recommended by IFCC and IUPAC and by the European pre standard ENV1614:1995.

EXAMPLE

[NPU01589]
Plasma—Chromium(III); substance concentration

The elements of a result comprise: an operator (= < <= > >= etc.), a numerical value, and a coherent unit (both of the latter usually in symbolic form).

EXAMPLE

[NPU01273]
= 0,1 nmol/l (prefix n: nano = 10-9).

The unit must never be omitted in reporting results, except for the unit '1'.
It is further recommended that the result includes or refers to a measure of uncertainty.
In addition to the systematic term of the property, an example and other pertinent information is given.

Nomenclature
It is recommended that the component name be spelled out in full as elemental symbols may not always be known by medical specialists. The oxidation state of an element is given in Roman numerals following the name of the element when relevant.

Elements of an entry in this recommendation
The terms recommended are given in bold, that is: the term for the type of property, the unit, and the coding scheme identifier with a code value.

  1. Name of system and parenthetic specification spelled out in full, and followed by a long dash.
  2. Alphanumeric chemical prefixes to component name.
  3. Recommended name of component and parenthetic specification. Shifted to the left for alphabetical sorting and searching, and followed by a semicolon.
  4. Kind-of-property and parenthetic specification.
  5. Unit.
  6. Molar mass M for conversion from mass-based kinds-of-property.
  7. Authority: Code value for the international organisation recommending the component or the combined elements of an entry.
  8. [NPUXXXXX] Coding scheme identifier and code value, intended for interlaboratory transmission between databases.
  9. Example in abbreviated form. For some, a numerical value for the result is included. It does not represent a reference value!

EXAMPLE

    Plasma—
Aluminium;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 26,98 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7429-90-5
    [NPU01157]
    P—Aluminium; subst.c. = 0,059 Ámol/l

The data reported per element are mainly taken from review articles and books on trace elements.

References

[1] IUPAC- IFCC(International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry- International Federation of Clinical Chemistry), Commission/Committee on Quantities and Units (in Clinical Chemistry), 1995. Properties and units in the clinical laboratory sciences. I. Syntax and semantic rules. Recommendations 1995. Prepared for publication by Olesen H. Pure & Appl Chem 1995;67:1563-74. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1995; 33: 627-36. Clin Chim Acta 1996; 245: S5-S21.

[2] IUPAC–IFCC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry–International Federation of Clinical Chemistry), Commission/Committee on Quantities and Units(in Clinical Chemistry), 1995. Compendium of terminology and nomenclature of properties in clinical laboratory sciences. Recommendations 1995. Prepared for publication by J.C. Rigg, S.S. Brown, R. DybkŠr, H. Olesen. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 290 pp.

[3] IUPAC- IFCC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry- International Federation of Clinical Chemistry), Commission/Expert Panel on Quantities and Units (in Clinical Chemistry), 1979. Approved recommendation (1978). Quantities and Units. Prepared for publication by DybkŠr R. Clin Chim Acta 1979; 96: 157F-183F.

[4] CEN/TC 251, 1995. European standard ENV 1614:1995. Health care informatics. Structure for nomenclature, classification and coding of properties in clinical laboratory sciences.

[5] Cornelis R., Heinzow B., Herber R.F.M., Molin Christensen J., Poulsen O.M., Sabbioni E., Templeton D.M., Thomassen Y., Vahter M., Vesterberg O., Sample collection guidelines for trace elements in blood and urine, Pure & Appl Chem 1995; 67; 1575 - 1608.

[6] Versieck J., Cornelis R., 1989.Trace elements in human plasma or serum, Florida: CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton.

[7] Minoia C., Sabbioni E., Apostoli P., Pietra A., Pozzoli L., Gallorini M., Nicolaou G., Alessio L., Capodaglio E., Trace element reference values in tissues from inhabitants of the European Community. I. A study of 46 elements in urine, blood and serum of Italian subjects. Sci Total Environ 1990; 95; 89 - 105.

[8] Poulsen O.M., Molin-Christensen J., Sabbioni E., Van der Venne M.T. Trace element reference values in tissues from inhabitants of the European Community. V. Review of trace elements in blood, serum and critical evaluation of reference values for the Danish population. Sci Total Environ 1994; 141; 197 - 215.

[9] Cornelis R., Sabbioni E., Van der Venne M.T., Trace element reference values in tissues from inhabitants of the European Community. VII. Review of trace elements in blood, serum and urine of the Belgian population and critical evaluation of their possible use as reference values. Sci Total Environ 1994; 158; 191 - 226.

[10] Seiler H.G., Sigel A., Sigel H. (Eds), 1994. Handbook on metals in clinical and analytical chemistry. New York: Marcel Dekker.

[11] Herber R.F.M., Stoeppler M. (Eds), 1994. Trace element analysis in biological specimens. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Index of abbreviations
 

CAS Chemical Abstract Service
IFCC International Federation of Clinical Chemistry
IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
SI International System of Units
C-NPU Committee/Commission on Nomenclature, Properties and Units
C-TOX Commssion on Toxicology

List of properties and units in Trace elements

    Hair—
Aluminium;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 26,98 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7429-90-5
    [NPU01156]
    Hair—Aluminium; subst.cont. = 100 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Aluminium;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 26,98 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7429-90-5
    [NPU01157]
    P—Aluminium; subst.c. = 0,059 Ámol/l

    Urine—
Aluminium;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 26,98 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7429-90-5
    [NPU01158]
    U—Aluminium; subst.c. = 0,059 Ámol/l

    Blood—
Antimony;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 121,75 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-36-0
    [NPU01271]
    B—Antimony; subst.c. = 0,1 nmol/l

    Hair—
Antimony;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 121,75 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-36-0
    [NPU01272]
    Hair—Antimony; subst.cont. = 2 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Antimony;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 121,75 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-36-0
    [NPU01273]
    P—Antimony; subst.c. = 0,1 nmol/l

    Urine—
Antimony;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 121,75 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-36-0
    [NPU01274]
    U—Antimony; subst.c. = 12 nmol/l

    Blood—
Arsenic;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 74,92 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-38-2
    [NPU01306]
    B—Arsenic; subst.c. = 35 nmol/l

    Cells(Blood)—
Arsenic;
    substance content
    nanomole/kilogram
    M = 74,92 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-38-2
    [NPU04807]
    Cells(B)—Arsenic; subst.cont. = 60 nmol/kg

     Hair—
Arsenic;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 74,92 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-38-2
    [NPU01307]
    Hair—Arsenic; subst.cont. = 10 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Arsenic;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 74,92 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-38-2
    [NPU04903]
    P—Arsenic; subst.c. = 15 nmol/l

    Urine—
Arsenic;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 74,92 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-38-2
    [NPU01308]
    U—Arsenic; subst.c. = 1600 nmol/l

    Plasma—
Barium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 137,34 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX: CAS7440-39-3
    [NPU01346]
    P—Barium; subst.c. = 7 nmol/l

    Urine—
Barium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 137,34 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX: CAS7440-39-3
    [NPU01347]
    U—Barium; subst.c. = 35 nmol/l

    Plasma—
Beryllium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 9,01 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-41-7
    [NPU01364]
    P—Beryllium; subst.c. = 10 nmol/l

    Urine—
Beryllium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 9,01 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-41-7
    [NPU01365]
    U—Beryllium; subst.c. = 10 nmol/l

    Plasma—
Bismuth;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 208,98 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-69-9
    [NPU01383]
    P—Bismuth; subst.c. = 0,3 nmol/l

    Urine—
Bismuth;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 208,98 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-69-9
    [NPU01384]
    U—Bismuth; subst.c. = 2,5 nmol/l

    Hair—
Boron;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 10,81 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-42-8
    [NPU04808]
    Hair—Boron; subst.cont. = 400 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Boron;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 10,811(5) g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-42-8
    [NPU01400]
    P—Boron; subst.c. = 2 Ámol/l

    Urine—
Boron;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 10,81 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-42-8
    [NPU04809]
    U—Boron; subst.c. = 70 Ámol/l

    Blood—
Bromide;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 79,90 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7726-95-6
    [NPU04834]
    B—Bromide; subst.c. = 60 Ámol/l

    Plasma—
Bromide;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 79,90 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7726-95-
    [NPU01403]
    P—Bromide; subst.c. = 60 Ámol/l

    Urine—
Bromide;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 79,90 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7726-95-6
    [NPU04870]
    U—Bromide; subst.c. = 50 Ámol/l

    Blood—
Cadmium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 112,41 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-43-9
    [NPU04874]
    B—Cadmium; subst.c. = 5 nmol/l

    Cells(Blood)—
Cadmium;
    substance content
    nanomole/kilogram
    M = 112,41 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-43-9
    [NPU04881]
    Cells(B)—Cadmium; subst.cont. = 10 nmol/kg

    Hair—
Cadmium;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 112,41 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-43-9
    [NPU01424]
    Hair—Cadmium; subst.cont. = 0,8 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Cadmium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 112,41 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-43-9
    [NPU01425]
    P—Cadmium; subst.c. = 2 nmol/l

    Urine—
Cadmium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 112,41 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-43-9
    [NPU01426]
    U—Cadmium; subst.c. = 10 nmol/l

    Blood—
Caesium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 132,90 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-46-2
    [NPU01427]
    B—Caesium; subst.c. = 3,3 nmol/l

    Cells(Blood)—
Caesium;
    substance content
    nanomole/kilogram
    M = 132,90 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-46-2
    [NPU01428]
    Cells(B)—Caesium; subst.cont. = 0,04 nmol/kg

    Hair—
Caesium;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 132,90 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-46-2
    [NPU01429]
    Hair—Caesium; subst.cont. = 2,6 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Caesium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 132,90 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-46-2
    [NPU01430]
    P—Caesium; subst.c. = 6 nmol/l

    Urine—
Caesium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 132,90 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-46-2
    [NPU01431]
    U—Caesium; subst.c. = 100 nmol/l

    Cells(Blood)—
Chromium(III);
    substance content
    nanomole/kilogram
    M = 52,00 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-47-3
    [NPU01586]
    Cells(B)—Chromium(III);subst.cont. = 6 nmol/kg

    Hair—
Chromium(III);
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 52,00 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-47-3
    [NPU01588]
    Hair—Chromium(III);subst.cont. = 90 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Chromium(III);
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 52,00 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-47-3
    [NPU01589]
    P—Chromium(III);subst.c. = 4 nmol/l

    Urine—
Chromium(III);
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 52,00 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-47-3
    [NPU01590]
    U—Chromium(III);subst.c. = 10 nmol/l

    Air(specification)—
Chromium(VI);
    substance concentration
    micromole/(metre)3
    M = 52,00 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-47-3
    [NPU01591]
    Air(spec.)—Chromium(IV);subst.c. = 0,96 Ámol/m3

    Air(specification)—
Cobalt;
    substance concentration
    micromole/(metre)3
    M = 58,93 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-48-4
    [NPU01702]
    Air(spec.)—Cobalt; subst.c. = 0,84 Ámol/m3

    Blood—
Cobalt;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 58,93 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-48-4
    [NPU01703]
    B—Cobalt; subst.c. = 2 nmol/l

    Hair—
Cobalt;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 58,93 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-48-4
    [NPU01704]
    Hair—Cobalt; subst.cont. = 2,3 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Cobalt;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 58,93 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-48-4
    [NPU04904]
    P—Cobalt; subst.c. = 2 nmol/l

    Urine—
Cobalt;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 58,93 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-48-4
    [NPU01705]
    U—Cobalt; subst.c. = 25 nmol/l

    Cells(Blood)—
Copper;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 63,55 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-50-8
    [NPU04905]
    Cells(B)—Copper; subst.cont. = 10 Ámol/kg

    Hair—
Copper;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 63,55 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-50-8
    [NPU01772]
    Hair—Copper; subst.cont. = 200 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Copper;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 63,55 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-50-8
    [NPU01773]
    P—Copper; subst.c. = 17 Ámol/l

    Urine—
Copper;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 63,55 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-50-8
    [NPU01774]
    U—Copper; subst.c. = 0,4 Ámol/l

    Plasma—
Fluoride;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 19,00 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7782-41-4
    [NPU04882]
    P—Fluoride; subst.c. = 1 Ámol/l

    Hair—
Gold;
    substance content
    nanomole/kilogram
    M = 196,97 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-57-5
    [NPU02311]
    Hair—Gold; subst.cont. = 100 nmol/kg

    Plasma—
Gold;
    substance concentration
    picomole/litre
    M = 196,97 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-57-5
    [NPU02312]
    P—Gold; subst.c. = 33 pmol/l

    Urine—
Gold;
    substance concentration
    picomole/litre
    M = 196,97 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-57-5
    [NPU02313]
    U—Gold; subst.c. = 60 pmol/l

    Urine—
Iodide;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 126,90 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7553-56-2
    [NPU04884]
    U—Iodide; subst.c. = 5 Ámol/l

    Hair—
Iron;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 55,85 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-89-6
    [NPU02506]
    Hair—Iron; subst.cont. = 130 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Iron;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 55,85 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-89-6
    [NPU02508]
    P—Iron; subst.c. = 21 Ámol/l

    Urine—
Iron;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 55,85 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII-C-TOX; CAS7439-89-6
    [NPU03940]
    U—Iron; subst.c. = 4 Ámol/l

    Blood—
Lead;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 207,2 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-92-1
    [NPU02572]
    B—Lead; subst.c. = 0,50 Ámol/l

    Cells(Blood)—
Lead;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 207,2 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-92-1
    [NPU02573]
    Cells(B)—Lead; subst.cont. = 1 Ámol/kg

    Hair—
Lead;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 207,2 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-92-1
    [NPU02574]
    Hair—Lead; subst.cont. = 160 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Lead;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 207,2 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-92-1
    [NPU04887]
    P—Lead; subst.c. = 0,02 Ámol/l

    Urine—
Lead;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 207,2 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-92-1
    [NPU02575]
    U—Lead; subst.c. = 0,3 Ámol/l

    Hair—
Lithium ion;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 6,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX
    [NPU02612]
    Hair—Lithium ion; subst.cont. = 56 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Lithium ion;
    substance concentration
    millimole/litre
    M = 6,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX
    [NPU02613]
    P—Lithium ion; subst.c. = 0,10 mmol/l

    Urine—
Lithium ion;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 6,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX
    [NPU04888]
    U—Lithium ion; subst.c. = 2,4 Ámol/l

    Plasma—
Magnesium(II; total);
    substance concentration
    millimole/litre
    M = 24,30 g/mol
    Authority: IFCC/C-BGE; IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-95-4
    [NPU02647]
    P—Magnesium(II; total); subst.c. = 1,0 mmol/l

    Urine—
Magnesium(II; total);
    substance concentration
    millimole/litre
    M = 24,30 g/mol
    Authority: IFCC/C-BGE; IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-95-4
    [NPU02648]
    U—Magnesium(II; total); subst.c. = 10 mmol/l

    Blood—
Manganese;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 54,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-96-5
    [NPU02668]
    B—Manganese; subst.c. = 140 nmol/l

    Cells(Blood)—
Manganese;
    substance content
    nanomole/kilogram
    M = 54,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-96-5
    [NPU04891]
    Cells(B)—Manganese; subst.cont. = 300 nmol/kg

    Plasma—
Manganese;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 54,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-96-5
    [NPU02669]
    P—Manganese; subst.c. = 10 nmol/l

    Urine—
Manganese;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 54,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-96-5
    [NPU02670]
    U—Manganese; subst.c. = 20 nmol/l

    Blood—
Mercury;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 200,59 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-97-6
    [NPU02699]
    B—Mercury; subst.c. = 25 nmol/l

    Cells(Blood)—
Mercury;
    substance content
    nanomole/kilogram
    M = 200,59 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-97-6
    [NPU04893]
    Cells(B)—Mercury; subst.cont. = 30 nmol/kg

    Hair—
Mercury;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 200,59 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-97-6
    [NPU02700]
    Hair—Mercury; subst.cont. = 40 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Mercury;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 200,59 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-97-6
    [NPU02701]
    P—Mercury; subst.c. = 10 nmol/l

    Urine—
Mercury;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 200,59 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-97-6
    [NPU02702]
    U—Mercury; subst.c. = 10 nmol/l

    Hair—
Molybdenum;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 95,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-98-7
    [NPU02837]
    Hair—Molybdenum; subst.cont. = 6 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Molybdenum;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 95,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-98-7
    [NPU02838]
    P—Molybdenum; subst.c. = 7 nmol/l

    Urine—
Molybdenum;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 95,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7439-98-7
    [NPU02839]
    U—Molybdenum; subst.c. = 300 nmol/l

    Hair—
Nickel;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 58,71 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-02-0
    [NPU02905]
    Hair—Nickel; subst.cont. = 54 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Nickel;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 58,71 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-02-0
    [NPU02906]
    P—Nickel; subst.c. = 5 nmol/l

    Urine—
Nickel;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 58,71 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-02-0
    [NPU02907]
    U—Nickel; subst.c. = 30 nmol/l

    Plasma—
Platinum;
    substance concentration
    picomole/litre
    M = 195,09 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-06-4
    [NPU03204]
    P—Platinum; subst.c. = 20 pmol/l

    Urine—
Platinum;
    substance concentration
    picomole/litre
    M = 195,09 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-06-4
    [NPU03205]
    U—Platinum; subst.c. = 50 pmol/l

    Blood—
Rubidium;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 85,47 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-17-7
    [NPU03370]
    B—Rubidium; subst.c. = 25 Ámol/l

    Cells(Blood)—
Rubidium;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 85,47 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-17-7
    [NPU04894]
    Cells(B)—Rubidium; subst.cont. = 50 Ámol/kg

    Hair—
Rubidium;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 85,47 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-17-7
    [NPU03371]
    Hair—Rubidium; subst.cont. = 4 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Rubidium;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 85,47 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-17-7
    [NPU03372]
    P—Rubidium; subst.c. = 2 Ámol/l

    Urine—
Rubidium;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 85,47 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-17-7
    [NPU03373]
    U—Rubidium; subst.c. = 30 Ámol/l

    Plasma—
Scandium;
    substance concentration
    picomole/litre
    M = 44,95 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-20-2
    [NPU04896]
    P—Scandium; subst.c. = 38 pmol/l

    Blood—
Selenium;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 78,96 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7782-49-2
    [NPU03893]
    B—Selenium; subst.c. = 1,5 Ámol/l

    Cells(Blood)—
Selenium;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 78,96 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7782-49-2
    [NPU03405]
    Cells(B)—Selenium; subst.cont. = 2 Ámol/kg

    Hair—
Selenium;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 78,96 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7782-49-2
    [NPU04899]
    Hair—Selenium; subst.cont. = 25 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Selenium;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 78,96 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7782-49-2
    [NPU04900]
    P—Selenium; subst.c. = 2 Ámol/l

    Urine—
Selenium;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 78,96 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7782-49-2
    [NPU03406]
    U—Selenium; subst.c. = 1,3 Ámol/l

    Plasma—
Silicon;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 28,09 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-21-3
    [NPU03423]
    P—Silicon; subst.c. = 5 Ámol/l

    Urine—
Silicon;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 28,09 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-21-3
    [NPU03424]
    U—Silicon; subst.c. = 500 Ámol/l

    Blood—
Silver;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 107,87 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-22-4
    [NPU03891]
    B—Silver; subst.c. = <20 nmol/l

    Hair—
Silver;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 107,87 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-22-4
    [NPU03890]
    Hair—Silver; subst.cont. = 3 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Silver;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 107,87 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-22-4
    [NPU03425]
    P—Silver; subst.c. = 1 nmol/l

    Urine—
Silver;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 107,87 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-22-4
    [NPU03892]
    U—Silver; subst.c. = 10 nmol/l

    Cells(Blood)—
Strontium;
    substance content
    nanomole/kilogram
    M = 87,62 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-24-6
    [NPU04901]
    Cells(B)—Strontium; subst.cont. = 30 nmol/kg

    Plasma—
Strontium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 87,62 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-24-6
    [NPU03494]
    P—Strontium; subst.c. = 0,3 nmol/l

    Blood—
Thallium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 204,37 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-28-0
    [NPU03551]
    B—Thallium; subst.c. = 2 nmol/l

    Urine—
Thallium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 204,37 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-28-0
    [NPU03553]
    U—Thallium; subst.c. = 3 nmol/l

    Plasma—
Tin;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 118,69 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-31-5
    [NPU03582]
    P—Tin; subst.c. = 7 nmol/l

    Plasma—
Titanium;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 47,90 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-32-6
    [NPU04902]
    P—Titanium; subst.c. = 2 Ámol/l

    Blood—
Uranium;
    substance concentration
    picomole/litre
    M = 238,03 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-61-1
    [NPU03685]
    B—Uranium; subst.c. = 21 pmol/l

    Urine—
Uranium;
    substance concentration
    picomole/litre
    M = 238,03 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-61-1
    [NPU03686]
    U—Uranium; subst.c. = 42 pmol/l

    Hair—
Vanadium;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 50,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-62-2
    [NPU03736]
    Hair—Vanadium; subst.cont. = 1,4 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Vanadium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 50,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-62-2
    [NPU03737]
    P—Vanadium; subst.c. = 0,6 nmol/l

    Urine—
Vanadium;
    substance concentration
    nanomole/litre
    M = 50,94 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-62-2
    [NPU03738]
    U—Vanadium; subst.c. = 6 nmol/l

    Hair—
Zinc;
    substance content
    millimole/kilogram
    M = 65,38 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-66-6
    [NPU010698]
    Hair—Zinc; subst.cont. = 3 mmol/kg

    Cells(Blood)—
Zinc;
    substance content
    micromole/kilogram
    M = 65,38 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-66-6
    [NPU03767]
    Cells(B)—Zinc; subst.cont. = 155 Ámol/kg

    Plasma—
Zinc;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 65,38 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-66-6
    [NPU03768]
    P—Zinc; subst.c. = 14 Ámol/l

    Seminal plasma—
Zinc;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 65,38 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-66-6
    [NPU03769]
    Seminal plasma—Zinc; subst.c. = 2 000 Ámol/l

    Urine—
Zinc;
    substance concentration
    micromole/litre
    M = 65,38 g/mol
    Authority: IUPAC/VII/C-TOX; CAS7440-66-6
    [NPU03770]
    U—Zinc; subst.c. = 5 Ámol/l