29 No. 4
Chemical Speciation of Environmentally Significant Metals with Inorganic Ligands Part 2: The Cu2+-OH-, Cl-, CO32-, SO42-, and PO43- Systems (IUPAC Technical Report)
Kipton J. Powell, Paul L. Brown, Robert H. Byrne, Tamas Gajda, Glenn Hefter, Staffan Sjöberg, and Hans Wanner
Pure and Applied Chemistry
Vol. 79, No. 5, pp. 895–950, 2007
Complex formation between CuII and the common environmental ligands Cl-, OH-, CO32-, SO42-, and PO43- can have a significant effect on CuII speciation in natural waters with low concentrations of organic matter. Copper(II) complexes are labile, so the CuII distribution among these inorganic ligands can be estimated by numerical modeling if reliable values for the relevant stability (formation) constants are available. This paper provides a critical review of such constants and related thermodynamic data. It recommends values of log10βp,q,ro valid at Im = 0 mol kg-1 and 25 oC (298.15 K), along with the equations and specific ion interaction coefficients required to calculate log10βp,q,r values at higher ionic strengths. Some values for reaction enthalpies, ΔrHm, are also reported where available. In weakly acidic fresh-water systems, in the absence of organic ligands, CuII speciation is dominated by the species Cu2+(aq), with CuSO4(aq) as a minor species. In seawater, it is dominated by CuCO3(aq), with Cu(OH)+, Cu2+(aq), CuCl+, Cu(CO3)OH-, Cu(OH)2(aq), and Cu(CO3)22- as minor species. In weakly acidic saline systems, it is dominated by Cu2+(aq) and CuCl+, with CuSO4(aq) and CuCl2(aq) as minor species.
Future parts of this series are in preparation—see details of IUPAC project 1999-050-1-500 <www.iupac.org/projects/1999/1999-050-1-500.html>.
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