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The Science of Chemical Safety
Essential Toxicology

An Educational Resource

> Back to index

Units
1. General Considerations
2. Factors Affecting Risk of Poisoning
3. Environmental Toxicology
4. Hazard and Risk
5. Management of Potentially Toxic Substances
6. Risk Assessment and Risk Management
7. Common types of Chemical that Cause Health Risks
-. Ethical considerations
-. DDT Case Study
-. Suggested Assessment Exercises


Unit 1 - General Considerations

Objective

  • To point out the relationship between dose and effect
    > For every substance there is a dose below which no effect occurs (threshold dose) and another above which poisoning occurs
    >> Thus, all substances are potentially safe or poisonous
    >>> This depends only on dose
  • To point out that natural substances may be highly poisonous and manmade substances may be of low toxicity
    > For example, Clostridium botulinum toxin is poisonous at even very low doses but synthesized sorbitol has a very low toxicity at high doses
    > Nicotine (natural) is highly poisonous but synthetic vitamin C is highly beneficial
> download unit as pdf file - 32KB

Contents > 16 slides
General Considerations - Toxicity and Dose (+ 2 graphs) - Nutrients, Drugs and Poisons (2 slides) - Natural and Synthetic Chemicals (2 slides) - Homeostasis - Avoiding Poisoning (2 slides) - Self Assessment - True or False? (2 slides) - Self Assessment - Checklist (2 slides)


Unit 2 - Factors Affecting Risk of Poisoning

Objective

  • To explain how substances move through our environment
  • To explain how effective exposure depends on physiological route of exposure
  • To explain how toxic effects depend upon how the body reacts with chemicals toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics local and systemic effects
  • To explain the importance of fat solubility
  • To explain the problem of assessing effects of mixed exposures
  • To explain the difference between acute and chronic exposures
  • To give some examples of harmful (toxic) effects
> download unit as pdf file - 167KB

Contents > 49 slides
Factors Affecting Risk of Poisoning - Movement Through the Environment (2s) - Routes of Human Exposure from the Environment - Exposure of the Child in the Womb and Babies - Exposure of the Child During Breast Feeding - Routes of Direct Human Exposure - Uptake from the Lungs - The Lungs - Uptake From the Gastro-intestinal Tract (Gut) - The Gastro-intestinal Tract (Gut) - Ionization and Uptake from the Gastro-intestinal Tract (Gut) - Absorption Through the Skin - Skin - Toxicokinetics - Phases of Poisoning (2s) - The Liver - Liver Biotransformation - Phase 1 and Phase 2 Reactions (2s) - Local and Systemic Effects (2s) - Fat Solubility and Water Solubility - Water Soluble Compounds - Very Fat Soluble Compounds (3s) - Metabolism and Excretion of Fat Soluble (Lipophilic) Substances - Exposure to Mixtures - Independent Effects - Independent Effects in Cigarette Smoke - Additive Effects - Synergistic Effects - Antagonistic Effects - Acute and Chronic Toxicity - Dose and Time of Exposure - Harmful Effects of Some Toxic Substances (2s) - Self Assessment - True or False? (4s) - Self Assessment - Checklist (4s)


Unit 3 - Environmental Toxicology

Objective

  • To explain what happens to chemicals in the natural environment
  • To introduce air pollution as a problem in toxicology
    - Acid rain and particulates
    - Global warming
  • To introduce ideas of movement of chemicals from the natural environment to people at risk
> download unit as pdf file - 53KB

Contents > 25 slides
Environmental Toxicology - Global Impacts (2s) - Air Pollution (6s) - Preventing Air Pollution (3s) - Stratosphere Ozone Depletion - The Montreal Protocol - Effects of Ozone Depletion - Global Warming (2s) - Environmental Exposure Routes - Risk Assessment for Environmental Exposure - Self Assessment - True or False? (2s) - Self Assessment - Checklist (2s)


Unit 4 - Hazard and Risk

Objective

  • To introduce the concepts of hazard and risk
  • To introduce the concept of “safe exposure”
  • To introduce the concept of chemicals causing an effect (cancer) for which no “safe exposure” exists because no threshold exposure can be identified
  • To introduce “exposure guidelines” and their possible limitations
> download unit as pdf file - 34KB

Contents > 18 slides
Hazard and Risk (2s) - Reducing Risk - Safe Exposure - Dose-Response Curve (2s) - Dose Effect Curves (2s) - “Safe” Exposure Levels (2s) - Chemicals That Can Cause Cancer - Regulation of Agents That Can Cause Cancer - Environmental Exposure Guidelines - Self Assessment - True or False? (2s) - Self Assessment - Checklist (2s)


Unit 5 - Management of Potentially Toxic Substances

Objective

  • To introduce risk management
    > cradle to the grave (life cycle) considerations
    > the preventive management approach
    > the example of chloralkali manufacture and use
    >> Mining, transport, processing, use in laboratory and home, waste disposal
  • To point out the importance of labelling, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), and International Chemical Safety Cards as sources of information
    - Hard copy sources of information on chemicals with instructions for their safe use
  • To introduce the concept of Prior Informed Consent (PIC)
> download unit as pdf file - 58KB

Contents > 37 slides
Management of Potentially Toxic Substances - Management of Toxic Substances - Sodium Chloride From “Cradle to Grave” - Prevention - Heavy Chemicals - Chlorine and Caustic Soda (2s) - Dose-Effect Relationship for Exposure to Chlorine - Mining Sodium Chloride - Mine Tailings - Transport - A diaphragm electrolytic chlor-alkali cell - Hazards of Chloralkali Manufacture (5s) - Uses of Chlorine - Uses of Hydrogen - The Laboratory and the Home (2s) - Waste (3s) - Typical domestic battery label with disposal warning - Prior Informed Consent (PIC) - Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues - Guidance on Safe Use of Chemicals - International Chemical Safety Cards - Self Assessment - True or False? (4s) - Self Assessment - Checklist (4s)


Unit 6 - Risk Assessment and Risk Management

Objective

  • To explain the concept of risk in relation to risk assessment, risk perception and risk acceptability and how these aspects relate to risk management
  • To explain how exposure assessment and the dose-response relationship are part of risk assessment
  • To introduce internet sources of toxicological information
> download unit as pdf file - 58KB

Contents > 41 slides
Risk Assessment and Risk Management - Background (2s) - Definitions and Notes (8s) - Risk Management in Practice (4s) - The Risk Assessment Process - Dose and Effect - Exposure Assessment - Anticipatable Exposure - Accidental Exposure - Risk Assessment - Risk Management -- Scientific and Technical Considerations -- Inter-related factors in risk management -- Risk Management and Law (2s) - The Risk Management System - Risk Interactions - Acceptability of Risk (3s) - Risk Zones - ECETOC Risk Zones (2s) - Information on the Internet (2s) - Self Assessment - True or False? (4s) - Self Assessment - Checklist (4s)


Unit 7 - Common Types of Chemical That Cause Health Risks

Objective

  • To provide examples of common chemicals and their potential for toxic effects
    > Dusts, fumes and gases
    > Solvents
    > Metals
    > Acids and bases
    > Pesticides
> download unit as pdf file - 32KB

Contents > 18 slides
Common Types of Chemical That Cause Health Risks - Dusts and Fumes - Gases - Phosgene - Carbon Monoxide - Hydrogen Cyanide - Solvents (2s) - Metals (2s) - Arsenic - Acids and Bases (2s) - Pesticides (2s) - Self Assessment - True or False? (4s) - Self Assessment - Checklist (4s)


Toxicology and Ethics, by Hans Bouma
1. What is "ethics"?
2. Codes of conduct
3. An Example of a Code of Ethics for Toxicology
4. Teaching of toxicology and ethics
Further Reading

> download unit as pdf file - 85KB

DDT - A Case Study > 20 slides
DDT - Origins - DDT - The Benefits - DDT - the Problem - DDT Bio-accumulation - DDT and Pigeons - DDT and eggshells - DDT - The Lessons - DDT, Mosquitoes, Wasps and Moths - Moths, Cockroaches, and Geckos - Dying Cats - Flying Cats - Preventing Malaria - Use of DDT - The DDT ban - Use of Pyrethroids - Malaria now - DDT Now - Conclusions (2s)

> download unit as pdf file - 32KB

Short Essay - Self Assessment Questions > 44 slides
- Natural and Synthetic Chemicals (6s) - Toxicity and Dose (3s) - Human Exposure (3s) - Environmental Exposure (3s) - Hazard and Risk (3s) - Risk Management (4s) - Toxic Waste (3s) - Risk Perception (4s) - Organic Solvents (4s) - Global Warming (3s) - Metals (4s) - Chemical Safety Information (3s)

> download unit as pdf file - 57KB

 


Page last modified 19 November 2001.
Copyright ©2001 International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

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